Aleksandar Cvetković, Danijela Cvetković, Danko Milašinović, Nemanja Jovičić, Nikola Miailović, Dalibor Nikolić, Slobodanka Mitrović, Nenad Filipović (DOI: 10.24874/jsscm.2021.15.02.06)
This is a feasibility study for the application of a novel concept of single-needle device for localized chemotherapy.
Systemic chemotherapy has numerous and severe side effects. To conduct localized (electro)chemotherapy, we designed a novel device that does not currently exist on the market. Electrochemotherapy is based on the cell membranes temporary or permanent permeabilization using an electric current of defined characteristics. Electroporation can be reversible, when after a period of opened pores and membrane permeability increasing, membranes and cells return to their original state without damage. Electroporation can be an irreversible process when the pores on the membrane remain permanently open, electrolyte imbalance occurs resulting in cell death. Electrochemotherapy involves a combination of cytostatics and reversible electroporation, when pores on the cell membrane are temporarily opened and, during that short period, a large amount of cytostatic is entered into the cell, which is a macromolecule that would not normally penetrate the cell. After closing the pores, the cytostatic remains trapped in the cell in large quantities, multiplying its effect. In this paper, we present a feasibility study of electroporation application in irreversible mode without the use of cytostatics. Fresh porcine liver tissue was used to show that the constructed equipment was effective, thus opening the way for further investigations using reversible electroporation with the application of cytostatics, which would represent localized electrochemotherapy. We penetrated the virtual tumor area (liver metastases) with a specially designed needle with electrodes that generate an electric field and apply electroporation in the target tissue. We have shown that the constructed novel design single needle equipment for electroporation is effective on the experimental model of isolated porcine liver. Further steps in our study will be the testing of electrochemotherapy in an experimental animal model in vivo.